Atlantis Arisen
October 15, 2019, 04:07:13 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: First Orchid Fossil Found in Amber
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/070829-orchid-fossil.html
 
  Home Help Search Arcade Links Staff List Login Register  

Çatalhöyük

Pages: [1]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Çatalhöyük  (Read 684 times)
Majir
Atlantean Hero
*****
Posts: 115



View Profile
« on: December 08, 2010, 01:24:26 pm »

Çatalhöyük

Çatalhöyük (Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhĝˌjyk]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for "fork", höyük for "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. It is the largest and best preserved Neolithic site found to date.

Çatalhöyük is located overlooking wheat fields in the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya (ancient Iconium) in Turkey, approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. The eastern settlement forms a mound which would have risen about 20 m (66 ft) above the plain at the time of the latest Neolithic occupation. There is also a smaller settlement mound to the west and a Byzantine settlement a few hundred meters to the east. The prehistoric mound settlements were abandoned before the Bronze Age. A channel of the Çarşamba river once flowed between the two mounds, and the settlement was built on alluvial clay which may have been favourable for early agriculture.

Report Spam   Logged

Majir
Atlantean Hero
*****
Posts: 115



View Profile
« Reply #1 on: December 08, 2010, 01:24:53 pm »

Archaeology
The site was first discovered by James Mellaart in 1958. He later led a team which excavated there for four seasons between 1961 and 1965. [1] [2] [3] [4] These excavations revealed this section of Anatolia as a centre of advanced culture in the Neolithic period. [5] Mellaart was banned from Turkey for his involvement in the Dorak affair in which he published drawings of supposedly important Bronze Age artifacts that later went missing. [6]

After this scandal, the site lay idle until September 12 1993, when investigations began under the leadership of Ian Hodder then at the University of Cambridge. These investigations are among the most ambitious excavation projects currently in progress according to, among others, Colin Renfrew. In addition to extensive use of archaeological science, psychological and artistic interpretations of the symbolism of the wall paintings have also been employed. Hodder, a former student of Mellaart, chose the site as the first real world test of his then controversial academic theory of post-processual archaeology.

Report Spam   Logged
Majir
Atlantean Hero
*****
Posts: 115



View Profile
« Reply #2 on: December 08, 2010, 01:25:14 pm »

The entire settlement of Çatalhöyük was composed of domestic buildings; the site has no obvious public buildings. While some of the larger buildings contain rather ornate wall murals, the purpose of such rooms remains unclear.[5]

The population of the eastern mound has been estimated at up to 10,000 people, but population totals likely varied over the community’s history. An average population of between 5,000 to 8,000 is a reasonable estimate. The inhabitants lived in mud-brick houses which were crammed together in an agglutinative manner. No footpaths or streets were used between the dwellings, which were clustered in a honeycomb-like maze. Most were accessed by holes in the ceiling, which were reached by interior and exterior ladders and stairs. Thus, the rooftops were used as streets. The ceiling openings also served as the only source of ventilation, letting in fresh air and allowing smoke from open hearths and ovens to escape. Also, the doors were on the ceilings of the houses, and there were stairs/ladders leading to the doors.

Houses had plaster interiors characterized by squared off timber ladders or steep stairs, usually placed on the south wall of the room, as were cooking hearths and ovens. Each main room served as an area for cooking and daily activities. The main rooms contained raised platforms that may have been used for a range of domestic activities. All interior walls and platforms were plastered to a smooth finish.[5] Ancillary rooms were used as storage, and were accessed through low entry openings from main rooms.

All rooms were kept scrupulously clean. Archaeologists identified very little trash or rubbish within the buildings, but found that trash heaps outside the ruins contain sewage and food waste as well as significant amounts of wood ash. In good weather, many daily activities may also have taken place on the rooftops, which conceivably formed an open air plaza. In later periods, large communal ovens appear to have been built on these rooftops. Over time, houses were renewed by partial demolition and rebuilding on a foundation of rubble—which was how the mound became built up. Up to 18 levels of settlement have been uncovered.

Report Spam   Logged
Majir
Atlantean Hero
*****
Posts: 115



View Profile
« Reply #3 on: December 08, 2010, 01:25:31 pm »

The people of Çatalhöyük buried their dead within the village. Human remains have been found in pits beneath the floors, and especially beneath hearths, the platforms within the main rooms and under the beds. The bodies were tightly flexed before burial, and were often placed in baskets or wrapped in reed mats. Disarticulated bones in some graves suggest that bodies may have been exposed in the open air for a time before the bones were gathered and buried. In some cases, graves were disturbed and the individual’s head removed from the skeleton. These heads may have been used in ritual, as some were found in other areas of the community. Some skulls were plastered and painted with ochre to recreate human-like faces, a custom more characteristic of Neolithic sites in Syria and at Neolithic Jericho than at sites closer by.

Report Spam   Logged
Majir
Atlantean Hero
*****
Posts: 115



View Profile
« Reply #4 on: December 08, 2010, 01:27:17 pm »

Vivid murals and figurines are found throughout the settlement, on interior and exterior walls. Distinctive clay figurines of women, notably the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük (illustration, right), have been found in the upper levels of the site. Although no identifiable temples have been found, the graves, murals, and figurines suggest that the people of Çatalhöyük had a religion which was rich in symbols. Rooms with concentrations of these items may have been shrines or public meeting areas. Predominant images include men with erect phalluses, hunting scenes, red images of the now extinct aurochs (wild cattle) and stags, and vultures swooping down on headless figures.[5]Relief figures are carved out of the walls, such as the depiction of lionesses facing one another.

Heads of animals, especially of cattle, were mounted on walls. A painting of the village with the twin mountain peaks of Hasan Dağ in the background is frequently cited as the world's oldest map and the first landscape painting.[5] Some archaeologists question this interpretation of the artifact. Stephanie Meece, for example, argues that it is more likely a painting of a leopard skin instead of a volcano, and a decorative geometric design instead of a map.[7]

The people appear to have lived relatively egalitarian lives with no apparent social classes, as no houses with distinctive features (belonging to royalty or religious hierarchy, for example) have been found so far. The most recent investigations also reveal little social distinction based on gender, with both men and women receiving equivalent nutrition and apparently, having relatively equal social status as typically found in Paleolithic cultures.[8][9][10][11]

Report Spam   Logged
Majir
Atlantean Hero
*****
Posts: 115



View Profile
« Reply #5 on: December 08, 2010, 01:28:44 pm »

In upper levels of the site, it becomes apparent that the people of Çatalhöyük were gaining skills in agriculture and the domestication of animals. Female figurines have been found within bins used for storage of cereals such as wheat and barley that are presumed to be a deity protecting the grain. Peas were also grown, and almonds, pistachios, and fruit were harvested from trees in the surrounding hills. Sheep were domesticated and evidence suggests the beginning of cattle domestication as well. However, hunting continued to be a major source of meat for the community. The making of pottery and the construction of obsidian tools were major industries. Obsidian tools were probably both used and traded for items such as Mediterranean sea shells and flint from Syria.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%87atal_H%C3%B6y%C3%BCk
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: [1]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum

Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy