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Metatron

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Victoria Liss
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« on: October 27, 2010, 01:20:07 pm »

Metatron



Metatron 'as Godís mediator with men' prevented Abraham from sacrificing Isaac.[1]
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Victoria Liss
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« Reply #1 on: October 27, 2010, 01:20:22 pm »

Metatron (Hebrew מטטרון or מיטטרון) or Mattatron (a differentiation of Metatron)[2] is the name of an angel in Judaism and some branches of Christianity and Islam. There are no references to him in the Jewish Tanakh or Christian Scriptures (New & Old Testament). Although he is mentioned in a few brief passages in the Talmud, Metatron appears primarily in medieval Jewish mystical texts and other post-scriptural esoteric and occult sources. In Rabbinic tradition, he is the highest of the angels and serves as the celestial scribe, though there is no consensus as to his genesis, nor is there a Christian consensus on his position in the hierarchy of angels or existence.[3]
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« Reply #2 on: October 27, 2010, 01:20:36 pm »

Origins
The Talmud relates that Elisha ben Abuyah, also called Acher, (אחר, "other", as he became an apostate), entered Paradise and saw Metatron sitting down (an action that in heaven is permitted only to God himself). Elishah ben Abuyah therefore looked to Metatron as a deity and said heretically, "There are indeed two powers in heaven!" The rabbis explain that Metatron was allowed to sit because of his function as the Heavenly Scribe, writing down the deeds of Israel (Babylonian Talmud, Hagiga 15a).[4]

... the Talmud states, it was proved to Elisha that Metatron could not be a second deity by the fact that Metatron received 60 'strokes with fiery rods' to demonstrate that Metatron was not a god, but an angel, and could be punished.

In opposition to this apology, Metatron is identified with the term "lesser YHVH", which is the Lesser Tetragrammaton, in a Talmudic version as cited by the Karaite scholar Kirkisani. The word Metatron is numerically equivalent to Shaddai (God) in Hebrew gematria; therefore, he is said to have a "Name like his Master." It should be noted, however, that Kirkisani may have misrepresented the Talmud in order to embarrass his Rabbanite opponents with evidence of dualism. On the other hand, extra-talmudic mystical texts (see below regarding Sefer Hekhalot) do speak of a "lesser YHVH," apparently deriving the concept from Exodus 23:21, which mentions an angel of whom God says "my name [understood as YHVH, the usual divine Proper Name] is in him."

The Babylonian Talmud mentions Metatron in two other places: Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zarah 3b. Yevamot 16b describes in the Amoraic period the duties of 'prince of the world' being transferred from Michael to Metatron.

Metatron is also mentioned in the Pseudepigrapha, most prominently in the Hebrew/Merkabah Book of Enoch, also called 3 Enoch or Sefer Hekhalot (Book of [the Heavenly] Palaces). The book describes the link between Enoch son of Jared (great grandfather of Noah) and his transformation into the angel Metatron. His grand title "the lesser YHVH" resurfaces here. Metatron says, "He [the Holy One]... called me, 'The lesser YHVH' in the presence of his whole household in the height, as it is written, 'my name is in him.'" (12:5, Alexander's translation). The narrator of this book, supposedly Rabbi Ishmael, tells how Metatron guided him through Heaven and explained its wonders. Here Metatron is described in two ways: as a primordial angel (9:2–13:2) and as the transformation of Enoch after he was assumed into Heaven.[5][6]

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« Reply #3 on: October 27, 2010, 01:20:47 pm »

Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him away. [Genesis 5:24 NIV.]

This Enoch, whose flesh was turned to flame, his veins to fire, his eye-lashes to flashes of lightning, his eye-balls to flaming torches, and whom God placed on a throne next to the throne of glory, received after this heavenly transformation the name Metatron. [Gershom G. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941/1961) p. 67. Extract of 3 Enoch.]

While this identification of Metatron with Enoch is not to be found in the Talmud itself, the connection is assumed by some of the earliest kabbalists. There also seem to be two Metatrons, one spelled with six letters (מטטרון), and one spelled with seven (מיטטרון). The former may be the transformed Enoch, Prince of the Countenance within the divine palace; the latter, the Primordial Metatron, an emanation of the "Cause of Causes," specifically the tenth and last emanation, identified with the earthly Divine Presence.[7]

The Zohar calls Metatron "the Youth", a title previously used in 3 Enoch, where it appears to mean "servant".[6] It identifies him as the angel that led the people of Israel through the wilderness after their exodus from Egypt (again referring to Exodus 23:21, see above), and describes him as a heavenly priest.

According to Johann Andreas Eisenmenger, Metatron transmits the daily orders of God to the angels Gabriel and Sammael. Metatron is often identified as being the twin brother to Sandalphon, who is said to have been the prophet Elijah.

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« Reply #4 on: October 27, 2010, 01:20:58 pm »

VM Samael Aun Weor imagines Metatron as the Prophet Enoch, the Angel who provided humanity with the 22 Hebrew letters and the original Tarot, stating that the Angel lives in the superior worlds in the region Aziluth (The Initiatic Path in the Arcana of Tarot and Kabbalah). However, the earliest evidence of any formalized tarot deck or its cosmology only goes back to 15th century Italy. It originally contained only the 22 cards of what came to be known as the "major arcana". Recent study has shown that the Tarot was most likely derived from the melting pot of eastern and western mysticism which occurred in Venice at the outset of the Renaissance, by various traditions of knowledge which were scattered across the globe and had roots in the far ancient past.[8] The objective was to encapsulate a transcendental system of knowledge which could be shared with everyone, as well as be understood by all. Its use as a tool for fortune telling was only established roughly 300 years later.

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« Reply #5 on: October 27, 2010, 01:21:14 pm »

Etymology
There are numerous possible etymologies for the name Metatron.[9][10] However, some scholars such as Philip Alexander believe that if the name Metatron originated in Hekhalot-Merkabah texts (such as 3 Enoch), then it may be a made up word like the magic words Adiriron and Dapdapiron.[11]

Hugo Odeberg,[12] Adolf Jellinek[13] and Marcus Jastrow[14] suggest the name may originate from either "keeper of the watch" מטרא or the noun "to guard, to protect" ממטר. An early derivation of this can be seen in Shimmusha Rabbah, where Enoch is clothed in light and is the guardian of the souls ascending to heaven. Odeberg also suggests that the name Metatron might be taken from the Persian name Mithras.[12] He lays out a number of parallels between Mithras and Metatron based on their positions in heaven and duties.

Metatron seems to be made up of two Greek words, after and throne, μετὰ θρóνος (meta thronos), taken together as "one who serves behind the throne" or "one who occupies the throne next to the throne of glory". This has been disputed due to the word θρóνος not being used in place of the Hebrew word for throne. The two words do not appear in any known text, leading to the belief of Gershom Scholem in particular to dismiss this idea[15] with the words "this widely repeated etymology.... has no merit.".[16]

The word συνθρόνος (synthronos) is used as "co-occupant of the divine throne"[17] ; however, like the above etymology, it is not found in any source materials.[12] It is supported by Saul Lieberman and Peter Schäfer, who give further reasons why this might be a viable etymology.[18][19
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« Reply #6 on: October 27, 2010, 01:21:24 pm »

The Latin word Metator (messenger, guide, leader, measurer) had been suggested by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (c. 1165 - c. 1230), Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman, and brought to light again by Hugo Odeberg.[12] When transliterated into the Hebrew language, we get מטיטור or מיטטור. Gershom Scholem argues that there is no data to justify the conversion of metator to metatron.[16] Philip Alexander also suggests this as a possible origin of Metatron, stating that the word Metator also occurs in Greek as mitator–a word for an officer in the Roman army who acted as a forerunner. Using this etymology, Alexander suggests the name may have come about as a description of "the angel of the Lord who led the Israelites through the wilderness: acting like a Roman army metator guiding the Israelites on their way".[20][21] Another possible interpretation is that of Enoch as a metator showing them "how they could escape from the wilderness of this world into the promised land of heaven". Because we see this as a word in Hebrew, Jewish Aramaic, and Greek, Alexander believes this gives even more strength to this etymology.

Other ideas include μετρονa (metrona, "a measure").[22] Charles Mopsik believes that the name Metatron may be related to the sentence from Genesis 5:24 "Enoch walked with God, then he was no more, because God took him."[23] The Greek version of the Hebrew word "to take" is μετετεθη (it was transferred).[22] רון , meaning RON, is a standard addition to מטטרון , metatron, and other angelic names in the Jewish faith. So Mopsik believes if we concentrate on מטט , MTT, he believes it appears to be a transliteration from the Greek μετετεθη.

In the entry entitled "Paradigmata" in his study, "'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly", John W McGinley gives an accounting of how this name functions in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes."[24] This account maintains that "Ishmael ben Elisha" is a Rabbinically sanctioned cognomen for Elisha ben Abbuyah (the "Akher" of the Bavli's account). This hypothesis explains why the generators of the "chambers" portion of the Heikhalot literature make "Ishmael ben Elisha" the major protagonist of their writings even though this Rabbi Ishmael was not directly mentioned in the Bavli's account (in the Gemara to tractate Khaggigah) of "The Work of the Chariot."

Solomon Judah Leib Rapport in Igrot Shir suggests that Metatron is a combination of two Greek words which mean to "change" and "pass away" referring to Chanoch (Enoch) who "changed" into an angel and "passed away" from the world.


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« Reply #7 on: October 27, 2010, 01:21:50 pm »

Metatron in Media
Literature

Metatron figures prominently in the third installment of His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman as the chief enforcer of the Authority (a high ranking angel pretending to be God) and a major antagonist. In the novel The Amber Spyglass, it is revealed that Metatron was at one time Enoch (see Origins above) and that Enoch encountered Yahweh 4,000 years before the events of the story. Transformed into an angel, Enoch became his Regent, charged with the task of exercising the will of the Authority. Metatron now vehemently persecutes all who oppose the Authority.

Metatron also appears in Good Omens by Neil Gaiman and Terry Pratchett, described as "the Voice of God. But not the voice of God. An entity in its own right. Rather like a Presidential spokesman".

Sol Yurick wrote "Metatron," published by Semiotext(e) in 1985. The more complete name is "Behold Metatron, the Recording Angel," which appears on the title page inside. It might be of interest to those interested in the questions concerning technology and other symptomotology known as the post-modern (or post-human) condition: "All knowledge is in the process of being converted to computer compatibility. The old 'philosopher's stone' could convert base metals into gold. Now humans, real estate, social relations are converted into electronic signs carried in an electronic plasma. The dream of magical control has never been exorcised. . . ."

Metatron is a character in Tony Kushner's one-act play Dr. Arnold A. Hutschnecker in Paradise. He is portrayed as a "vast fiery being with a million eyes" and works as a psychoanalyst.[25]

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« Reply #8 on: October 27, 2010, 01:21:59 pm »

Film
In Kevin Smith's movie, Dogma, Metatron (portrayed by Alan Rickman) introduces himself as "herald of the Almighty" and the "voice of God." Although the film portrays Metatron in a comic light (as both sardonic and vain), the character is depicted as having a close relationship to God, and superiority over other angels. Metatron expresses irritation when the main character Bethany does not recognize his name, but immediately picks up on a reference to the tenth plague.

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« Reply #9 on: October 27, 2010, 01:22:16 pm »

Music
'Lungfish', a band from Baltimore, Maryland, have a song "Metatron" on their 1999 album "The Unanimous Hour." [26]

'The Mars Volta', a band from El Paso, Texas, have a song "Metatron" on their 2008 album "The Bedlam in Goliath."

The Bad Plus have a song on their album, Never Stop, called "My Friend Metatron"

The Finnish death rock band Babylon Whores has a song named "Metatron" on their 1997 debut album "Cold Heaven".

Tony Bones Ft. Freeway & Bizzy Bone (excerpt from bizzy's verse: "Metatron Much Love")

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« Reply #10 on: October 27, 2010, 01:22:27 pm »

[edit] Video Games
Metatron appears in several Shin Megami Tensei games as a powerful persona that the player can either fight against or use as an ally. He is the final form the the Aeon Arcana in Persona 3 Fes Edition.

Silent Hill 3 features an item call the "seal of Metatron".

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