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First dynasty of Egypt

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Majir
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« on: October 06, 2010, 01:29:47 pm »

First dynasty of Egypt

The first dynasty of Ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty I)[1] is often combined with the Dynasty II under the group title, Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. At that time the capital was Thinis.

Prominent Nubians
•   Alara , Founder of the Kushite Empire
•   Taharqa , Pharaoh of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Egypt
•   Anwar El Sadat , Late third President of Egypt ( Egyptian Nubian father, Sudanese Nubian mother)
•   Gaafar Nimeiri , Former Sudanese president
•   Mohammed Wardi , Singer
•   Mohamed Mounir , Singer
•   Ali Hassan Kuban , Singer and musician
•   Hamza El Din , Singer and musicologist
•   Khalil Kalfat , Literary critic, political and economic thinker and writer
•   Abdullah Khalil , Ex-Sudanese Prime Minister, Co-Founder of the White Flag League, Co-Founders and ex General Secretary of the Umma Party
•   Ibrahim Ahmed , Prominent Sudanese politician, First Sudanese Head of The University of Khartoum , First Secretary of Treasury, the First Chairman of the Bank of Sudan, Co-founder of el Umma party, Author and negotiator of the Sudanese Declaration of Independence
•   Muhammad Ahmad , 19 century Sufi sheikh and self proclaimed Mahdi, Founder of the Mahdiyya
•   Jamal Abu Seif, Founder of the Itihad, the first polically active group in the Sudan and predecessor of the famous White Flag League
•   Sheikh Khalil Ateeg , Founder of the Day'fiya Ismailiya sect of Sufism Islam in the Sudan
•   Abdu Dahab Hassanein , Founder of the Sudanese Communist Party
•   Dawwod Abdul-Latif , First mayor of Khartoum
•   Mohammed Tawfeg , ex-Minister of Exterior, ex-Minister of The Media
•   Mo Ibrahim , Sudanese-born British mobile communications entrepreneur , one of the richest men in the United Kingdom
[edit] References
1.   ^ Dig Nubia – Image
2.   ^ Dig Nubia – Nubia: Land of the Bow
•   Rouchdy, Aleya (1991). Nubians and the Nubian Language in Contemporary Egypt: A Case of Cultural and Linguistic Contact. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004091971.
•   Valbelle, Dominique; Charles Bonnet (2007). The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977416010X.
•   Warnock Fernea, Elizabeth; Robert A. Fernea (1990). Nubian Ethnographies. Chicago: Waveland Press Inc.. ISBN 0881334804.
•   Black Pharaohs - National Geographic Feb 2008
Rulers
Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty are as follows:
First Dynasty
Name   Comments   Dates
Narmer
- probably Menes on earlier lists   c. 3100–3050 B.C.
Hor-Aha
   c. 3050–3049 B.C.
Djer
-   c. 3049–3008 B.C. 41 years (Palermo Stone)

Djet
-   3008–2975?
Merneith
the mother of Den   3008?
Den
-   2975–2935 30 to 50 years(40 years?)
Anedjib
-   2935?–2925? 10 years (Palermo Stone)

Semerkhet
-   2925?–2916? 9 years (Palermo Stone)

Qa'a
-   2916?–2890 B.C.
Information about this dynasty is derived from a few monuments and other objects bearing royal names, the most important being the Narmer Palette. No detailed records of the first two dynasties have survived, except for the terse lists on the Palermo stone. The hieroglyphs were fully developed by then, and their shapes would be used with little change for more than three thousand years.
Large tombs of pharaohs at Abydos and Naqada, in addition to cemeteries at Saqqara and Helwan near Memphis, reveal structures built largely of wood and mud bricks, with some small use of stone for walls and floors. Stone was used in quantity for the manufacture of ornaments, vessels, and occasionally, for statues. Tamarix - tamarisk, salt cedar was used to build boats such as the Abydos Boats. One of the most important indigenous woodworking techniques was the fixed Mortise and tenon joint. A fixed tenon was made by shaping the end of one timber to fit into a mortise (hole) that is cut into a second timber. A variation of this joint using a free tenon eventually became one of the most important features in Mediterranean and Egyptian shipbuilding. It creates a union between two planks or other components by inserting a separate tenon into a cavity (mortise) of the corresponding size cut into each component." [2]
[edit] Human sacrifice as part of royal funerary practice
Human sacrifice was practiced as part of the funerary rituals associated with all of the pharaohs of the first dynasty.[3] It is demonstrated clearly as existing during this dynasty by hundreds of retainers being buried in each pharaoh's tomb along with other animals sacrificed for the burial. The tomb of Djer is associated with the burials of 338 individuals.[3] The people and animals sacrificed, such as donkeys, were expected to assist the pharaoh in the afterlife. For unknown reasons, this practice ended with the conclusion of the dynasty, with shabtis taking the place of actual people to aid the pharaohs with the work expected of them in the afterlife.[3]
[edit] References
1.   ^ Kuhrt 1995: 118
2.   ^ Early ship construction - Khufu's solar boat, January, 2001, retrieved October 29, 2008.
3.   ^ a b c Shaw 2000: 68
Bibliography
•   Kuhrt, Amιlie (1995). The Ancient Near East: c. 3000-330 BC. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415013536. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=K-wOAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
•   Shaw, Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280458-8. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=092jP1lBhtoC&source=gbs_navlinks_s.


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