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Nubian people

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Majir
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« on: October 06, 2010, 01:24:21 pm »

Nubian people

The Nubians (Arabic: نوبي‎, Nuubi) are an ethnic group originally from northern Sudan, and southern Egypt now inhabiting East Africa and some parts of Northeast Africa. The Nubian people in Sudan inhabit the region between Wadi Halfa in the north and Aldaba in the south. The main Nubian groups from north to south are the Halfaweyen, Sikut, Mahas, and Danagla. They speak different dialects of the Nubian language.

In ancient times Nubians were depicted by Egyptians as having very dark skin, often shown with hooped earrings and with braided or extended hair.[1] Ancient Nubians were famous for their vast wealth, their trade between Central Africa and the lower Nile valley civilizations, including Egypt, their skill and precision with the bow, their 23-letter alphabet, the use of deadly poison on the heads of their arrows, their great military, their advanced civilization, and their century-long rule over the united upper and lower Egyptian kingdoms.[2]

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Majir
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« Reply #1 on: October 06, 2010, 01:25:10 pm »

History

Nubians are the people of southern Egypt and northern Sudan, settling along the banks of the Nile from Aswan. Their Nubian language is an Eastern Sudanic language, part of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.

Old Nubian is attested from the 8th century, and is thus the oldest recorded language of Africa outside of the Afro-Asiatic group. It was the language of the Noba nomads who occupied the Nile between the First and Third Cataracts and the Makorae nomads who occupied the land between the Third and Fourth Cataracts following the collapse of Meroë sometime in the 4th century AD. The Makorae were a separate tribe who eventually conquered or inherited the lands of the Noba: they established a Byzantine-influenced state called Makuria which administered the Noba lands separately as the eparchy of Nobadia. Nobadia was converted to Monophysite Christianity by the priests Julian and Longinus, and thereafter received its bishops from the Pope of Alexandria.

[edit] Present day
The influx of Arabs to Egypt and Sudan had contributed to the suppression of the Nubian identity following the collapse of the last Nubian kingdom in 1900. A major part of the modern Nubian population were arabized. The Jaa'leen-the majority of Northern Sudanese and some Donglawes in Sudan, Kenuz and Koreskos in Egypt all claimed to be Arabs. However the vast majority of Nubians were converted to Islam, and Arabic became their main language, in addition to their indigenous old Nubian language. The unique characteristics of Nubians are their culture (dress, dances, traditions and music) as well as their indigenous language which is a common feature of most Nubians.

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Majir
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« Reply #2 on: October 06, 2010, 01:25:50 pm »



A Nubian circa 1900
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Majir
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« Reply #3 on: October 06, 2010, 01:26:34 pm »

Prominent Nubians
•   Alara , Founder of the Kushite Empire
•   Taharqa , Pharaoh of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Egypt
•   Anwar El Sadat , Late third President of Egypt ( Egyptian Nubian father, Sudanese Nubian mother)
•   Gaafar Nimeiri , Former Sudanese president
•   Mohammed Wardi , Singer
•   Mohamed Mounir , Singer
•   Ali Hassan Kuban , Singer and musician
•   Hamza El Din , Singer and musicologist
•   Khalil Kalfat , Literary critic, political and economic thinker and writer
•   Abdullah Khalil , Ex-Sudanese Prime Minister, Co-Founder of the White Flag League, Co-Founders and ex General Secretary of the Umma Party
•   Ibrahim Ahmed , Prominent Sudanese politician, First Sudanese Head of The University of Khartoum , First Secretary of Treasury, the First Chairman of the Bank of Sudan, Co-founder of el Umma party, Author and negotiator of the Sudanese Declaration of Independence
•   Muhammad Ahmad , 19 century Sufi sheikh and self proclaimed Mahdi, Founder of the Mahdiyya
•   Jamal Abu Seif, Founder of the Itihad, the first polically active group in the Sudan and predecessor of the famous White Flag League
•   Sheikh Khalil Ateeg , Founder of the Day'fiya Ismailiya sect of Sufism Islam in the Sudan
•   Abdu Dahab Hassanein , Founder of the Sudanese Communist Party
•   Dawwod Abdul-Latif , First mayor of Khartoum
•   Mohammed Tawfeg , ex-Minister of Exterior, ex-Minister of The Media
•   Mo Ibrahim , Sudanese-born British mobile communications entrepreneur , one of the richest men in the United Kingdom
[edit] References
1.   ^ Dig Nubia – Image
2.   ^ Dig Nubia – Nubia: Land of the Bow
•   Rouchdy, Aleya (1991). Nubians and the Nubian Language in Contemporary Egypt: A Case of Cultural and Linguistic Contact. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004091971.
•   Valbelle, Dominique; Charles Bonnet (2007). The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977416010X.
•   Warnock Fernea, Elizabeth; Robert A. Fernea (1990). Nubian Ethnographies. Chicago: Waveland Press Inc.. ISBN 0881334804.
•   Black Pharaohs - National Geographic Feb 2008
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