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http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/070813-angkor-wat.html
 
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1  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:16:35 pm
Skull and crossbones
A Masonic legend speaks of three Templars searching the site of Jacques de Molay's burning and finding only his skull and femurs. These they took with them and allegedly were used as the impetus to create the first Jolly Roger flag of Piracy, so that they would never forget.[citation needed] This same symbol is used today by the Yale Skull and Bones society.
2  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:15:32 pm
Templar constructions
Many locations claim various links with the Templars with varying degrees of reliability. One commonly-cited speculation has to do with a painting that was in the roof of a Templar building in Templecombe, England. Now on display in St Mary's Church in the village, some people believe that it is a Templar-commissioned image of either Christ or the disembodied head of John the Baptist.[16]
The following is a list of some of the places that have been associated with the Knights Templar, either in fiction or legend, but which have not yet been proven to have a factual association.
Well of Souls in Jerusalem
Oak Island, Nova Scotia (fabled western outpost)[14]
Acadia (modern day Nova Scotia) is a derivative of Arcadia, the mythical utopian and idyllic vision of Renaissance mythology. The Acadian people of Nova Scotia and the Cajun people of Louisiana are rumored to be descendents of former Knights Templar.
Church at Laon in France
Round Church of Lanleff in Brittany, France
The castle of Barberà in Spain
The castle of Ponferrada, a village in León, Spain
Chapel Chwarszczany in Poland
Bannockburn, site of the Battle of Bannockburn in Scotland
Rosslyn Chapel and Orphir Church in Scotland
Royston Cave, under the cross roads formed by the Icknield Way and Ermine Street
Hertford, England the Guardian
Holy Sepulchre in Cambridge, England Round Church
St Sepulchre's in Northampton, England
La chapelle saint-Georges d'Ydes in France
Church of San Jacopo in Campo Corbolini, in Florence Italy
Castle of Almourol, Portugal
Temple Bruer, Lincolnshire
Trinity Church on Wall Street in New York City
3  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:13:49 pm

Revisionist historians and conspiracy theorists claim that the Knights Templar stored secret knowledge, linking them to myriad other subjects: the Rosicrucians, the Cathars, the Priory of Sion, King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, the Hermetics, the Ebionites, the Rex Deus, lost relics or gospels of James the Just, Mary Magdalene or Jesus (such as a "Judas Testament"), King Solomon, Moses, and, ultimately, Hiram Abif and the mysteries of ancient Egypt. This, in turn, has contributed to the Knights Templar having several influences on popular culture.
4  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:13:17 pm
Discoverers of the New World
Though the Knights Templar were officially disbanded in the early 1300s, some believe that the Templars, who are claimed to have possessed a sizable fleet of ships (though there is no trace of their existence in any historical record), may have fled to the New World by following old Viking routes, making one of the pre-Columbian voyages to America.[14] In Portugal, the Knights Templar did not disband, but simply changed their name to Knights of Christ. In 1492, this group is alleged to have provided the navigators for Christopher Columbus' journey, and the Order's cross was featured prominently on the sails of his ships, however there is no actual evidence to support this.
[edit] Legendary associations with other Orders
/wiki/File:Regaleira.JPG /wiki/File:Regaleira.JPG
/wiki/File:Regaleira.JPG /wiki/File:Regaleira.JPG'Well of Initiation': architecture based in Templar, Rosicrucian and Masonic symbolism at the "Quinta da Regaleira" (1892-1910), Sintra, Portugal.
Further speculation revolves around the Templar's association with other Orders. This matter is additionally confused because some Orders, such as the Freemasons, started adopting Templar symbols and traditions in the 1700s. (See: Knights Templar (Freemasonry)) Another modern (but much smaller) order that claims Templar ancestry is the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem.
5  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:12:44 pm
Knights Templar in Scotland
Main article: Knights Templar in Scotland
During the late 13th, early 14th century, England, under King Edward I, was at war with Scotland. In 1314 his son, Edward II, engaged the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. According to Victorian legend, the Scots won the battle largely due to the intervention of the Knights Templar on the side of their King Robert the Bruce.[14] In reality, none of the contemporary or near contemporary accounts of the battle at Bannockburn mention the Knights Templar at all, and the excommunicated King Robert the Bruce had very good reason to have nothing to do with the Templars, since he was desperate to keep on the right side of the Pope and of the King of France. It is also worth noting that two members of the Knights Templar had fought for Edward I at the battle of Falkirk in 1297. Militarily he managed very well without them from 1307-1314 and from 1314-1328 and the story could only be seen as a sop to English pride - the 'real' reason for their loss isn't because they were fighting against the Scots but against an elite force of knights. This legend is the basis for degrees in the invitational Masonic Order known as the Royal Order of Scotland.[15]
6  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:12:09 pm
Some people point out a few assumed similarities between Knights Templar and Switzerland.[13] This is mainly because of the similar flags, the Knights, a square cross flared at the ends, and the modern Flag of Switzerland, a square cross, without flared ends. Also, the Knights were known for their banking.
Ultimately, throughout history and to this day, various organizations have tried to claim links to the original Templar order. To date, none of these claims is historically verifiable nor widely accepted in academia.
7  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:11:57 pm
Some historians and authors have tried to draw a link from Freemasonry and its many branches to the Templars. This alleged link remains a point of debate. Degrees in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite such as the Knight of Saint Andrew, the Knight of Rose-Croix, and the 32nd Degree in Consistory make reference to a "Masonic Knights Templar" connection, but this is usually dismissed as being ceremonial and not historical fact.
John J. Robinson argues for the Templar-Masonic connection in his book Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry, in which he alleges that some French Templars fled to Scotland after the suppression of the Order, fearing persecution from both Church and state. He claims they sought refuge with a lodge of Scottish stone masons within which they began to teach the virtues of chivalry and obedience, using the builders tools as a metaphor; and eventually they began taking in "speculative masons" (men of other professions) in order to ensure the continuation of the Order. According to Robinson, the Order existed in secret in this form until the formation of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1717. An example of Templar-Masonic transitory symbolism can supposedly be found in Rosslyn Chapel owned by the first Earls of Rosslyn Sinclair a family with well documented ties to Scottish Freemasonry, however Rosslyn Chapel itself dates from at least 100 years after the suppression of the Templars.
The case is also made in Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh's book The Temple and the Lodge.
However, historians Mark Oxbrow, Ian Robertson,[10] Karen Ralls and Louise Yeoman [11] have each made it clear that the Sinclair family had no connection with the Medieval Knights Templar. The Sinclairs' testimony against the Knights at their 1309 trial is not consistent with any alleged support or membership. In "The Templars and the Grail"[12] Karen Ralls states that among some 50 who testified against the Templars were Henry and William Sinclair.
The Order of the Solar Temple is one infamous example of a "neo-Templar" group, founded in 1984, that claimed descent from the original Knights Templar; there are several other self-styled orders that also claim to be descended from, or revivals of, the Templar Order. One such organization is the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem (SMOTJ), an ecumenical Christian society based on the traditions of the medieval Knights Templar and principles of chivalry. However, the order is not a genuine order of chivalry, having neither official state recognition nor a head of state as sovereign. SMOTJ was created in 1804 and is dedicated to the preservation of the holy sites in and around Jerusalem, charitable works, and antiquarian research. In 2001, the most prominent faction of the SMOTJ was recognized by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization.
8  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:11:37 pm
Claims of descent and revival
 
“   The lunatic ... doesn't concern himself at all with logic; he works by short circuits. For him, everything proves everything else. The lunatic is all idée fixe, and whatever he comes across confirms his lunacy. You can tell him by the liberties he takes with common sense, by his flashes of inspiration, and by the fact that sooner or later he brings up the Templars.   ”   
9  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Re: Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:11:12 pm
Relics
Other legends of modern invention say that the Holy Grail, or Sangreal, was found by the Order and taken to Scotland during the suppression of the order in 1307, and that it remains buried beneath Rosslyn Chapel. Other more recent discoveries say the Holy Grail was taken to Northern Spain, and protected by the Knights Templar there.[5]
Some sources claim that the Templars discovered secrets of the Masons, builders of both the original and second temples at the Temple Mount, along with knowledge that the Ark had been moved to Ethiopia before the destruction of the first temple.[6] Allusion to this is made in engravings on the Cathedral at Chartres, great influence over the building of which was had by Bernard of Clairvaux, the Order's patron. Further links to both the search by the order for the Ark and to its discovery of ancient secrets of building are supposedly suggested by the existence of the monolithic Church of St. George in Lalibela, Ethiopia, which stands to this day but whose construction is incorrectly attributed to the Knights Templar.
Some scholars, such as Hugh J. Schonfield, and fringe researchers argue that the Knights Templar may have found the Copper Scroll treasure of the Qumran Essenes in the tunnels beneath the Temple Mount. They suggest that this might explain one of the charges of heresy which were later brought against the knights by the Medieval Inquisition.
[edit] Mysterious deaths of the Order's enemies
The last Grand Master of the Templar Order, Jacques de Molay, was burned at the stake in 1314, by order of King Philip IV of France, who had also pressured Pope Clement V to disband the Order. Legend has it that de Molay issued his dying curse against the King and Pope Clement V, saying that he would meet them before God before the year was out. Pope Clement died only a month later, and King Philip died later that year in a hunting accident.
Succession to the throne of France passed rapidly through Philip's sons. Louis X the Quarreller lasted for only two years, leaving a pregnant wife who gave birth to the next king, John I the Posthumous, but the baby lived for only five days before succumbing, probably to poison. The throne then went to another of Philip IV's sons, Philip V the Tall, who was crowned at the age of 23, but died at 29. Since he had no sons, the throne then went to his brother, Charles IV the Fair, who himself died six years later without a male heir, and thereby ended the Capetian Dynasty.
Many believed that the dynasty had been cursed. A series of 20th century novels called Les Rois Maudits (The Accursed Kings) expanded on this story.
[edit] Friday the 13th
Many modern stories claim that when King Philip IV had many Templars simultaneously arrested on October 13, 1307, that started the legend of the unlucky Friday the 13th. However, closer examination shows that though the number 13 was indeed considered historically unlucky, the actual association of Friday and 13 seems to be an invention from the early 1900s.[7][8]
10  The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail / the Knights Templar / Knights Templar legends on: May 11, 2010, 03:10:27 pm
Knights Templar legends

The secrecy around the powerful medieval Order of the Knights Templar, and the speed with which they suddenly disappeared over the space of a few years, has led to many different Knights Templar legends. These range from rumors about their association with the Holy Grail and the Ark of the Covenant, to questions about their association with the Freemasons. Recent speculation about the Templars has further increased because of references to them in bestselling books such as The Da Vinci Code and films such as Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Many legends surround the location of the Templars' first headquarters on the Temple Mount, which had been assigned to them by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem.[1] They were in operation there for 75 years.
The Temple Mount is sacred ground to Jews, Christians, and Muslims, and is believed to be the location of the ruins of Solomon's Temple, and the ancient resting place of the Ark of the Covenant.[2] Pseudo-historical books such as The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail claim that the Templars discovered documents hidden in the ruins of the Temple, "proving" that Jesus survived the Crucifixion or possibly "proving" Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene and had children by her. Indeed, the supposition that the Templars must have found something under the Temple Mount lies at the heart of most Templar legends and pseudo-historical theories. There is no physical or documentary evidence, however, to support such a supposition. It is true that they are documented as having carried a piece of the True Cross into some battles,[3] but this was likely a portion of a timber that was discovered during the 4th century by Saint Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine.[4]
The recent discovery of the Chinon Parchment in the Vatican Archives appears to absolve the Templars from charges of heresy that were levied on them at the time of their suppression on Friday, October 13, 1307, and by which they have been labeled in the centuries since. Copies of this document were published in 2004, and made available online.
 
11  Genres of Film & Literature / Comic Books / How scientific are superheroes? on: May 11, 2010, 03:08:36 pm
How scientific are superheroes? Posted: 04:02 PM ET
You've probably had moments watching science fiction films when you thought, "Naw, that couldn't happen." And it's true - sci-fi movies often contain elements that don't conform to the laws of physics.
But modern science can say a lot about the plausibility of such things as stopping an asteroid from destroying the planet, and these are teachable moments, experts said today at the annual meeting of the American Association of the Advancement of Science in San Diego, California.
Take the asteroid example: films such as "When Worlds Collide" are good about estimating the impact of celestial objects hitting our planet, said Sidney Perkowitz, Emory University physicist and author of "Hollywood Science." In real life, the Tunguska Event, in which a meteor hit part of Siberia, Russia, in 1908, decimated hundreds of square miles of forest.
The Barringer Crater in Arizona, nearly a mile wide, was also created by a meteor. Science fiction movies, however, often incorrectly portray the "save the day moment," since not even an H-bomb has the power to deflect an asteroid, he said.
The powers of superheroes and villains do bring up important concepts in physics, said James Kakalios, technical consultant on the recent "Watchmen" movie and a physicist at the University of Minnesota. For instance, quantum tunneling - the idea that particles can pass through energy barriers - is how Dr. Manhattan teleports in "Watchmen" and how Kitty Pryde walks through walls in "X-Men." Dr. Manhattan's blue color can be explained through a phenomenon called Cerenkov radiation, he said, with the blue glow resulting from the leakage of high-energy electrons.
Believability is important to filmmakers because they don't want viewers' attention to drift away from the story, Kakalios said. He noticed, for instance, that in "Iron Man," Tony Stark is using the correct soldering tool and in the right way. "So you're not thinking about Robert Downey Jr. playing a role, you're thinking about Tony Stark making an Iron Man suit," he said.
You can watch Kakalios' popular YouTube video about the science of "Watchmen" to learn more. And watch for more on the science of superheroes on Monday on CNN.com.
12  the Ancient World / Neolithic Europe / Stone circle suggests Stonehenge part of burial complex on: May 11, 2010, 03:07:08 pm
Stone circle suggests Stonehenge part of burial complex

Story Highlights
Discovery of lost stone circle sheds new light on Stonehenge's purpose

Researchers say "Bluestonehenge" was starting point of funeral processional route

Bluestonehenge is named after color of Welsh stones from which it was formed

Some have viewed Stonehenge as temple, astronomical observatory

updated 4 hours, 56 minutes agoNext Article in World


By Moni Basu
CNN
     
(CNN) -- Stonehenge, an enigma to visitors and scientists alike for so many years, became less of a mystery after a discovery announced to the world this week.




A stone circle discovered near Stonehenge may suggest the prehistoric monument was part of a funeral route.

 Archaeologists have unearthed a new stone circle near Stonehenge that lends credence to the theory that the famous prehistoric monument in Britain was part of a funeral complex.

University of Bristol archaeologist Joshua Pollard described the new find as "incredible" because it establishes Stonehenge as part of a larger ceremonial complex linked to the nearby River Avon.

"No one could have predicted there was another stone circle so close by," said Pollard, co-director of the excavation project that began in 2004.

This, he said, changes the perception of the popular tourist destination 90 miles west of London.

The new find, dubbed "Bluestonehenge" after the color of the 25 Welsh stones of which it was once composed, sits along the Avon a mile away from its famous sister circle, Pollard said.

Neolithic peoples would have come down river by boat and literally stepped off into Bluestonehenge, Pollard said. They may have congregated at certain times of the year, including the winter solstice, and carried remains of the dead from Bluestonehenge down an almost two-mile funeral processional route to a cemetery at Stonehenge to bury them.

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"It could be that Bluestonehenge was where the dead began their final journey to Stonehenge," said Mike Parker Pearson, an archaeologist at the University of Sheffield who co-directed the project with Pollard.

"Not many people know that Stonehenge was Britain's largest burial ground at that time," he said. "Maybe the blue stone circle is where people were cremated before their ashes were buried at Stonehenge itself."

Proof of life artifacts -- pottery, animal bones, food residues and flint tools used in the Stone Age -- are decidedly absent at Stonehenge but were found upstream in a village discovered by the excavation team in 2005, leading researchers to believe that Stonehenge was indeed a burial ground.

But people have debated the purpose of Stonehenge for decades.

Known for its orientation in relation to the rising and setting sun, the circle of stones represented a prehistoric temple to some. Others argued it was an astronomical observatory. Or that it was a marker of time.

But Pollard is sticking to his theory. He said others have not based their suppositions on archaeological finds.

Archaeologists began the latest excavation with the hope of tracking the course of the avenue that led to Stonehenge. They had no idea they would stumble upon a second circle that would help uncover the mystery of Stonehenge.

The stones at Bluestonehenge were removed thousands of years ago, Pollard said, but the sizes of the remaining pits, about 33 feet in diameter, point to giant blue stones from the Preseli Mountains of Wales, about 150 miles away.

Pollard said that Neolithic people dragged the pillarlike blue stones along the processional route to Stonehenge to incorporate them in a major rebuilding that took place around 2500 B.C. Archaeologists know that after 2500, Stonehenge consisted of about 60 Welsh stones and 83 local sarsen stones.

Some of the blue stones that once stood on the river's edge probably now stand within the center of Stonehenge, Pollard said. Scientists plan to use radiocarbon dating techniques to better understand the history of the entire site.

Stonehenge remains as striking as ever. But with each new find, the enigma fades just a little.
http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/10/07/stonehenge.discovery/index.html?iref=mpstoryview
13  General Category / Computers & Internet / Re: Web pioneer recalls 'birth of the Internet' on: May 11, 2010, 03:05:32 pm
So we typed the "l," and we asked over the phone, "Did you get the 'l?' " And the response came back, "Yep, we got the 'l.' " We typed the "o." "Got the 'o?' " " 'Yep, got the 'o.' " Typed the 'g.' "You get the 'g?' " Crash! SRI's host crashed at that point. So the very first message ever on the Internet was the very simple, very prophetic "lo," as in lo and behold.

And, you know, we weren't aware that this was a significant event that would be recorded in history. We did not have a very effective message like "What hath God wrought" or "Come here, Watson, I need you." Or "One giant leap for mankind." We just weren't that smart.

When the host computers talked to each other, I like to say the Internet uttered its first words on that day.

CNN: Before October 29, 1969, was no computer talking to any other computer?

Kleinrock: Well, typically not over a data connection, no. What was going on at that time was that many users sitting at terminals were connected to time-sharing systems with a local connection. But that was just connecting to a single computer.

CNN: UCLA sent a press release about your work in July of 1969, just a few months before your October breakthrough. At the time, did you have any idea how far-reaching all this was?

Kleinrock: Basically, I said the Internet will be always on, always available, [and that] everybody with any device could connect to the Internet from any time and any location, and it would be as invisible as electricity. What I missed was the social aspect, namely that my 99-year-old mother would be on the Internet, as she was until she passed away two years ago. And by the way, at the same time, my preschool granddaughter would be on the Internet.

CNN: What is feature shock?

Kleinrock: Feature shock is a term I coined some years ago. Systems [such as Windows or Safari] contain an enormous number of features, each one of which may be valuable by itself, but no one is really able to use all the features. However, because you've essentially paid for all those features, you feel guilty if you don't exploit them. So you spend time learning to use them.

I'm a power user of PowerPoint. I spend thousands of hours learning how to use it effectively. If someone came along with a new version of PowerPoint that has a different interface than the one I'm used to, and [even] if it were twice as good as PowerPoint, I wouldn't bother installing it.

We're overwhelmed by [features]; we don't know how to use them. It slows down the rate at which new applications and features are accepted by the public because of this investment they have in their thousands of hours of learning.

And I consider that a good thing. It allows a little more mature thinking in how we start hopping around in technologies and thereby losing the experience and history we had before. There's a kind of a measured way in which people will adopt new technology, and I think that's helpful.

CNN: What are you up to these days in the development of the Internet?

Kleinrock: I'm working on what we call smart spaces, whereby the cyberspace comes out from behind the [computer] screen, where most people consider it residing, and moves out into your physical space so that there will be intelligence and embedded technology in the walls of your room, in your desk, in your fingernails, in your eyeglasses, in your automobile, in your hotel rooms all across the world as you move around.

CNN: If computers will be doing so much of our thinking for us, does that mean our brains will get less of a workout?

Kleinrock: It's always been the goal and desire of we technologists that as we provide capability that computers are good at -- number crunching, file storage, massive databases that can be searched -- that it would free us up to do the things that humans do so well, like pattern recognition and putting thoughts together, intuition and innovation.

So it may relieve us of some of the mundane things that we don't do well. On the other hand, I personally regret that the youth of today are depending so much for their simple arithmetic calculations on these handheld calculators or wristwatch calculators that they don't know how to make change in the supermarkets anymore.

CNN: What other dangers could be ahead?

Kleinrock: There's a very dark side to the Internet, which we're all familiar with. It started with a worm in 1988, and it became spam in 1994, and now we have pornography, we have denial of service [attacks], we have identity theft, we have fraud, we have things like botnets [pieces of software that cyberthieves use to remotely and secretly control your computer], which really worry me.

One of the problems of the Internet is that we didn't install what I like to call strong user authentication or strong file authentication. We didn't anticipate the level of the dark side we see today. The culture of the early Internet was one of trust of all the users.

I knew every user on the Internet in those early days. It was an open culture. We shared everything we did. We got our gratification by putting things out there, which people could use. And there was an etiquette -- net etiquette if you will, which people behaved.

CNN: What about privacy? Is it dead?

Kleinrock: Yes, in a word. Yes.

And it was voluntarily given up in many cases. I mean, when someone lists their telephone number or uses their credit card or makes a cell phone call or even carries around a cell phone, that's an awful lot of info about where you are, what you're doing and some of your private matters.

There are cameras all over the place, and they're increasing in number. I like to say the only privacy we can expect is to go to the edge of the ocean, strip down and jump in and hope there's no sonar down there tracking you, by the way, which there will be soon.

CNN: Do you like to play video games over the Internet?

Kleinrock: The answer is no, no. I'm not of that generation. Nor do I use Facebook or Twitter. I've got enough things that demand my attention. ... E-mail is a wonderful black hole for my time. I don't want to have to answer tweets and SMS messages, following friends, etc. It's too demanding and too frivolous in many ways.

CNN: Do you have a certain emotional tie to the Internet as if it were a member of the family?

Kleinrock: Of course I do, and it's part and parcel to my DNA. But it's as aggravating to me as to anyone else in terms of when it doesn't work, when the applications don't work.

CNN: Were you always an inventor?

Kleinrock: When I was about 6 years old, I built a crystal radio from instructions I found in a Superman comic book. The thing that fascinated me was, I could basically get all the parts at no cost.

I was totally enchanted. This was magic, and I spent the rest of my life trying to figure out how that works. Life is one big puzzle for me in the positive sense. There are a lot of things to play with. And they pay me for it.

http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/10/29/kleinrock.internet/index.html
14  General Category / Computers & Internet / Re: Web pioneer recalls 'birth of the Internet' on: May 11, 2010, 03:05:13 pm
On October 29 of that year, for perhaps the first time, a message was sent over a computer network. Leonard Kleinrock, a professor of computer science at the University of California-Los Angeles, connected the school's host computer to one at Stanford Research Institute, a former arm of Stanford University.

Forty years ago today, the Internet may have uttered its first word.

Twenty years later, Kleinrock chaired a group whose report on building a national computer network influenced Congress in helping develop the modern Internet. Kleinrock holds more than a dozen patents and was awarded the National Medal of Science last year by President Bush.

In an interview with CNN, the 75-year-old looks back on his achievements and peers into the exciting and sometimes scary future of the Web he helped create.

CNN: In basic terms, what happened on October 29, 1969, and what was its importance to the Internet as we know it today?

Kleinrock: Millions of people helped create this Internet. I basically supervised the creation of the Internet at the first node, both in the first connection and the very first message. We had just by then connected the first two host computers to the Internet. The first one was on September 2, 1969, when UCLA connected its host computer to the first packet switcher, the first router if you will, ever on the Internet.

But there was no other computer to talk to. So a month later, Stanford Research Institute received its interface message processor, or IMP, connected it to their host computer, and we created the first piece of the backbone network when a 50-kilobit-per-second line was connected between UCLA and SRI.

What we wanted to do was send a message essentially from UCLA to SRI's host. And frankly, all we wanted to do was log in -- to type an l-o-g, and the remote time-sharing system knows what you're trying to do.
15  General Category / Computers & Internet / Web pioneer recalls 'birth of the Internet' on: May 11, 2010, 03:04:43 pm
Web pioneer recalls 'birth of the Internet'

By Philip Rosenbaum, CNN

October 29, 2009 11:26 a.m. EDT

Leonard Kleinrock today, with the UCLA computer he used to send a message to a lab at Stanford University.STORY HIGHLIGHTS
Leonard Kleinrock sent first message over computer network October 29, 1969
A professor at UCLA, he sent several words to computer at Stanford University
Kleinrock: "We weren't aware this was a significant event that would be recorded in history"
There's dark side to Internet now that Web pioneers didn't anticipate, he says

RELATED TOPICS
Internet
Distributed Computing
University of California-Los Angeles
(CNN) -- It was 1969 and a busy year for making history: Woodstock, the Miracle Mets, men on the moon -- and something less celebrated but arguably more significant, the birth of the Internet.
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