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News: Ancient documents portend major earthquake
TEL AVIV, Israel, Oct. 4 (UPI) -- An Israeli scientist said ancient documents suggest a major earthquake triggered by the Dead Sea Fault is long overdue in the Middle East.
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1  the Ancient World / the Ancient Historians / Re: Olaus Rudbeck on: June 15, 2010, 01:30:00 pm
2  the Ancient World / the Ancient Historians / Re: Olaus Rudbeck on: June 15, 2010, 01:24:44 pm
Rudbeck was active in many scientific areas, including astronomy, and left many traces still visible in the city of Uppsala today.

During the course of a fire that destroyed most of Uppsala in 1702, a large portion of Rudbeck's writings was lost. Rudbeck himself directed the people of the city, shouting orders from a roof while his house burned down. He died the same year, shortly after the fire, and was buried in Uppsala Cathedral at the transept. (Since then, Swedish monarchs have frequently been crowned over his grave.)

The Nobel family, including Ludvig Nobel, the founder of Nobelbra, and Alfred Nobel, the founder of the Nobel Prizes, was a descendant of Rudbeck through his daughter Wendela, who married one of her father's former students, Peter Olai Nobelius.

The plant genus Rudbeckia was named by the botanist Carolus Linneaus in honor of both Rudbeck and his son.

3  the Ancient World / the Ancient Historians / Re: Olaus Rudbeck on: June 15, 2010, 01:24:34 pm
Historical linguistics

Between 1679-1702, Rudbeck dedicated himself to contributions in historical-linguistics patriotism, writing a 3,000-page treatise in four volumes called Atlantica (Atland eller Manheim in Swedish) where he purported to prove that Sweden was Atlantis, the cradle of civilization, and Swedish the original language of Adam from which Latin and Hebrew had evolved.[2] His work was criticized by several Scandinavian authors, including the Danish professor Ludvig Holberg, and the Swedish author and physician Andreas Kempe, both of whom wrote satires based on Rudbeck's writings. His work was later used by Dennis Diderot in the article "Etymologie" in Encyclopédie as a cautionary example of deceptive linking of etymology with mythical history.[3]

Despite the criticism targeting his linguistic theories and despite the priority dispute with Bartholin, Rudbeck remained a national icon in Sweden for many years. His son, Olof Rudbeck the Younger, continued his linguistic work and also became involved in providing an "intellectual reason" for power during a period when Sweden aspired to a position as one of the great powers of Europe. Rudbeck the Younger added speculations about the relationship between Sami and Hebrew languages to his father's long list of fantastical linguistic relationships.

4  the Ancient World / the Ancient Historians / Re: Olaus Rudbeck on: June 15, 2010, 01:24:09 pm
Human anatomy
Rudbeck was one of the pioneers in the study of lymphatic vessels. According to his supporters in Sweden, he was the first to discover the lymphatic system and is documented as having shown his findings at the court of Queen Christina of Sweden in the Spring of 1652. However, he did not publish anything about it until the fall of 1653, after Thomas Bartholin, a Danish scientist, had published a description of a similar discovery of his own.[1] (For other early discoverers of the lymphatic system, see Gasparo Aselli and Jean Pecquet).

Rudbeck's research led to the Queen's support of his career. To facilitate his studies of human anatomy, he had a cupola built on top of Gustavianum, a university edifice, and in it was built an arena-like Theatrum anatomicum, where dissection could be carried out in front of students. The cupola still remains and is a landmark in Uppsala. The "Gustavianum" stands in front of the cathedral, and is still part of the university.

5  the Ancient World / the Ancient Historians / Re: Olaus Rudbeck on: June 15, 2010, 01:23:49 pm

 September 13, 1630
Died December 12, 1702 (aged 72)
Nationality Swedish
Fields Medicine
Institutions Uppsala University

6  the Ancient World / the Ancient Historians / Olaus Rudbeck on: June 15, 2010, 01:22:38 pm
Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (September 13, 1630 Västerås – December 12, 1702) was a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university. He was the son of Bishop Johannes Rudbeckius, who was personal chaplain to King Gustavus Adolphus, and the father of botanist Olof Rudbeck the Younger. Rudbeck is primarily known for his contributions in two fields: human anatomy and linguistics, but he was also accomplished in many other fields including music and botany. (He established the first botanical garden in Sweden at Uppsala, called Rudbeck's Garden, but which was renamed a hundred years later for his son's student, the botanist Carolus Linneaus.)

7  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:21:30 pm
In popular culture
The "Mammoth Journey" episode of the BBC television programme Walking with Beasts is partly set on the dry bed of the southern North Sea.
The area also featured in the "Britain's Drowned World" episode of the Channel 4 Time Team documentary. [13]
The first chapter of Edward Rutherfurd's novel Sarum describes the flooding of Doggerland.
The legend "The Cormorants of Utrøst"[14] describes a sunken land in the Norwegian Sea (not in the North Sea).
8  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:21:16 pm
Interest in the area was reinvigorated in the 1990s by the work of Prof. Bryony Coles, who named the area "Doggerland" ("after the great banks in the southern North Sea"[5]) and produced a series of speculative maps of the area.[5][8] Although she recognised that the current relief of the southern North Sea seabed is not a sound guide to the topography of Doggerland,[8] the topography of the area has more recently begun to be reconstructed more authoritatively using seismic survey data obtained through petrochemical exploration surveys.[9][10]

A skull fragment of a Neanderthal, dated at over 40,000 years old, was recovered from material dredged from the Middeldiep, a region of the North Sea located some 10 miles (16 km) off the coast of Zeeland, and was exhibited in Leiden in 2009.[11]

In March 2010 it was reported that recognition of the potential archaeological importance of the area could affect the future development of offshore wind farms in the North Sea.[12]

9  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:20:45 pm
Discovery and investigation by archaeologists

The remains of plants brought to the surface from Dogger Bank had been studied as early as 1913 by palaeobiologist Clement Reid and the remains of animals and worked flints from the Neolithic period had been found around the fringes of the area.[7] In his book The Antiquity of Man, published in 1915, anatomist Sir Arthur Keith had discussed the archaeological potential of the area.[7] Then, in 1931, the trawler Colinda hauled up a lump of peat whilst fishing near the Ower Bank, 25 miles (40 km) east of Norfolk. The peat was found to contain a barbed antler point, possibly used as a harpoon or fish spear, 8.5 inches (220 mm) long, later identified to date from between 4,000 and 10,000 years ago, when the area was tundra.[3][5] The tool was exhibited in the Castle Museum in Norwich.[5]

10  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:20:18 pm

It is generally thought that as sea levels gradually rose after the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age, Doggerland became submerged beneath the North Sea, cutting off what was previously the British peninsula from the European mainland by around 6500BC.[4] The Dogger Bank, which had been an upland area of Doggerland, is believed to have remained as an island until at least 5000BC.[4]

A more recent hypothesis is that much of the land was inundated by a tsunami around 8200BP (6200BC), caused by a submarine landslide off the coast of Norway known as the Storegga Slide. This theory suggests "that the Storegga Slide tsunami would have had a catastrophic impact on the contemporary coastal Mesolithic population... Following the Storegga Slide tsunami, it appears, Britain finally became separated from the continent and, in cultural terms, the Mesolithic there goes its own way."[6]

11  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:19:58 pm
Before the first glacial period of the current Pleistocene-Holocene Ice Age the Rhine river flowed northwards through the North Sea bed at a time when the North Sea was dry. It is thought that a Cenozoic silt deposit in East Anglia is the bed of an old course of the Rhine. The Weald was twice as long as it is now and stretched across the present Strait of Dover; the modern Boulonnais is a remnant of its east end.

With glaciation, when Scandinavian and Scottish ice first met and formed a giant ice dam, a large proglacial lake then formed behind it, which received the river drainage and ice melt from much of northern Europe and Baltic drainage through the Baltic River System. The impounded water eventually overflowed over the Weald into the English Channel and cut a deep gap which sea erosion later widened gradually into the Strait of Dover.

During the most recent glaciation, the Devensian glaciation which occurred around 10,000 years ago, the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered with glacial ice and the sea level was about 120 metres (390 ft) lower than it is today. Much of the North Sea and English Channel was an expanse of low-lying tundra, extending around 12,000BC as far as the modern northern point of Scotland.[4]

Evidence including the contours of the present seabed shows that after the first main Ice Age the watershed between North Sea drainage and English Channel drainage extended east from East Anglia then southeast to the Hook of Holland, not across the Strait of Dover, and that the Thames, Meuse, Scheldt and Rhine rivers joined and flowed along the English Channel dry bed as a wide slow river which at times flowed far before reaching the Atlantic Ocean.[4][3] At about 8,000BC, the north-facing coastal area, now called Doggerland, had a coastline of lagoons, marshes, mudflats, and beaches. It may have been the richest hunting, fowling and fishing ground in Europe available to the Mesolithic culture of the time.[3][5]

12  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:19:46 pm

The red line marks Dogger Bank, which is most likely a moraine formed in the Pleistocene.[1]
13  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:18:44 pm
^Map showing hypothetical extent of Doggerland (c. 8,000BC), which provided a land bridge between Great Britain and continental Europe
14  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Re: Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:18:13 pm

An image of the area known as Doggerland which connected the British Isles and the European continent. Loosely based on two images, found here and here, however drawing work was all done in Illustrator by myself. Norway has been excluded from the map.
15  Ancient Mysteries / Lemuria, Mu & other sunken civilizations / Doggerland on: June 15, 2010, 01:16:21 pm

Doggerland is a name given by archaeologists and geologists to the former landmass in the southern North Sea that connected the island of Great Britain to mainland Europe during and after the last Ice Age. Geological surveys have suggested that Doggerland was a large area of dry land that stretched from Britain's east coast across to the present coast of the Netherlands and the western coasts of Germany and Denmark.[2] The land was likely a rich habitat with human habitation in the Mesolithic period.[3]

The archaeological potential of the area had first been discussed in the early 20th Century, but interest intensified in 1931 when a commercial trawler operating near the sandbank and shipping hazard known as the Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat), dragged up an elegant, barbed antler point that dated to a time when the area was a tundra. Later vessels have dragged up mammoth and lion remains, among other remains of land animals, as well as small numbers of prehistoric tools and weapons which were used by the region's inhabitants.

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