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September 11th, 2001 => Environmental Disasters & Mass Tragedies => Topic started by: Lisa Wolfe on July 23, 2010, 01:25:47 pm

Title: 1990 Luzon earthquake
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on July 23, 2010, 01:25:47 pm
1990 Luzon earthquake

The 1990 Luzon earthquake occurred on Monday, July 16, 1990, at 4:26 PM local time in the Philippines. The densely populated island of Luzon was struck by an earthquake with a 7.8 Ms (surface-wave magnitude). The earthquake produced a 125 km-long ground rupture that stretched from Dingalan, Aurora to Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya as a result of strike-slip movements along the Philippine Fault and the Digdig Fault within the Philippine Fault System. The earthquake epicenter was placed at 15 42' N and 121 7' E near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, northeast of Cabanatuan City.[1]

An estimated 1,621 people were killed in the earthquake[2][3], most of the fatalities located in Central Luzon and the Cordillera region.

Title: Re: 1990 Luzon earthquake
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on July 23, 2010, 01:26:39 pm
The earthquake caused damage within in an area of about 20,000 square kilometers, stretching from the mountains of the Cordillera Administrative Region and through the Central Luzon region. The earthquake was strongly felt in Metropolitan Manila, leading to panic and stampedes and ultimately three deaths in the National Capital Region,[4] one of the lowest fatalities recorded in the wake of the tremor.

Baguio City, Benguet
The popular tourist destination of Baguio City, situated over 5000 feet above sea level, was among the areas most hardest hit by the Luzon earthquake. The earthquake caused the collapse of 28 buildings, including hotels, factories, government and university buildings, as well as many private homes and establishments.[5] The quake destroyed electric, water and communication lines in the city.[6] The main vehicular route to Baguio, Kennon Road, as well as other access routes to the mountain city were shut down due to landslides, and it took three days before enough landslide debris was cleared to allow access by road to the stricken city.[6] Baguio City was isolated from the rest of the Philippines for the first 48 hours after the quake. Damage at Loakan Airport rendered access to the city by air limited through helicopters.[6] American & Philippine Air Force C-130s did evacuate many residents from this airport. Many city residents, as well as patients confined in hospital buildings damaged by the quake were forced to stay inside tents set up in public places, such as in Burnham Park, or in the streets. Looting of department stores in the city was reported.[7]

Among the first rescuers to arrive at the devastated city were miners from Benguet Corporation, who focused on rescue efforts at the collapsed Hotel Nevada.[8] Teams sent by the Philippine government and by foreign governments and agencies likewise participated in the rescue and retrieval operations in Baguio City.

One of the more prominent buildings destroyed was the Hyatt Terraces Hotel where at least eighty hotel employees and guests were killed. However, three hotel employees were pulled out alive after having been buried under the rubble for nearly two weeks, and after international rescue teams had abandoned the site convinced there were no more survivors.[9] Luisa Mallorca and Arnel Calabia were extricated from the rubble 11 days after the quake, while hotel cook Pedrito Dy was recovered alive 14 days following the earthquake.[10] All three survived in part by drinking their own urine[10] and in Dy's case, rainwater.[8] Dy's 14-day ordeal was cited as a world record for entombment underneath rubble.[9]This has since been exceeded by Darlene Etienne, a 15 year-old survivor of the 2010 Haitian earthquake who was rescued alive after 15 days..[17]

The United States Agency for International Development was sponsoring a seminar at the Hotel Nevada when the tremor struck, causing the hotel to collapse. 27 of the seminar participants, including one American USAID official were killed in the quake.[5] Among those who died at the Hotel Nevada was Alice Laya, wife of Jaime Laya who served as Central Bank Governor and Minister of Education in the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos. Among those who were pulled out alive from the rubble of the Hotel Nevada was Sonia Roco, who was pulled out from the rubble after 36 hours by miners.[11]. The wife of then-Congressman Raul Roco, who would run for the Philippine presidency in 1998 and 2004, Sonia Roco herself would unsuccessfully run for the Philippine Senate in 2007.[12]

Title: Re: 1990 Luzon earthquake
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on July 23, 2010, 01:27:41 pm
Cabanatuan City
In Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, the tallest building in the city, a six-story concrete school building housing the Christian College of the Philippines, collapsed during the earthquake, which occurred during school hours. Around 154 people were killed at the CCP building. Unlike in Baguio City, local and international journalists were able to arrive at Cabanatuan City within hours after the tremor, and media coverage of the quake in its immediate aftermath centered on the collapsed school, where rescue efforts were hampered by the lack of heavy equipment to cut through the steel reinforcement of fallen concrete.[4] Some of the victims who did not die in the collapse were found dead later from dehydration because they were not pulled out in time.[13]

A 20-year old high school student, Robin Garcia, was later credited with rescuing at least eight students and teachers by twice returning under the rubble to retrieve survivors. Garcia was killed by an aftershock hours after the quake while trying to rescue more survivors, and he received several posthumous tributes, including medals of honor from the Boy Scouts of the Philippines and President Corazon Aquino.[14]

The Christian College of the Philippines was the only building in Cabanatuan City that collapsed during the earthquake. The city suffered about 363 casualties, (including 274 who were trapped ), with 154 of them dead.

Dagupan City, Pangasinan
In Dagupan City, about 90 buildings in the city were damaged, and about 20 collapsed. Some structures sustained damage because liquefaction caused buildings to sink as much as 1 meter (39 inches). The earthquake caused a decrease in the elevation of the city and several areas were flooded. The city suffered 64 casualties of which 47 survived and 17 died. Most injuries were sustained during stampedes at a university building and a theater.

[edit] La Union
Five municipalities in La Union were affected: Agoo, Aringay, Caba, Santo Tomas, and Tubao with a combined population of 132,208. Many buildings collapsed or were severely damaged. 100,000 families were displaced when two coastal villages sank due to liquefaction. The province suffered many casualties and 32 of them died.

Title: Re: 1990 Luzon earthquake
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on July 23, 2010, 01:28:08 pm
Based on preliminary analysis, cases and controls were similar in age and sex distribution. Similar proportions of cases and controls were inside (74% and 80%, respectively) and outside (26% and 20%, respectively) buildings during the earthquake. For persons who were inside a building, risk factors included building height, type of building material, and the floor level the person was on. Persons inside buildings with seven or more floors were 35 times more likely to be injured (odds ratio [OR]=34.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.1-306.9). Persons inside buildings constructed of concrete or mixed materials were three times more likely to sustain injuries (OR=3.4; 95% CI=1.1-13.5) than were those inside wooden buildings. Persons at middle levels of multistory buildings were twice as likely to be injured as those at the top or bottom levels (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.3-4.2).[15]

Patterns of damage
The earthquake caused different patterns of damage in different parts of Luzon Island. The mountain resort of Baguio was most severely affected, probably because it had the highest population density and many tall concrete buildings, which were more susceptible to seismic damage. Because all routes of communication, roads, and airport access were severed for several days, relief efforts were also the most difficult there. Relief efforts were further hampered by daily drenching, cold rains. Because Baguio is home to a large mining company and a military academy, experienced miners and other disciplined volunteers played a crucial role in early rescue efforts. Rescue teams arriving from Manila and elsewhere in Luzon were able to decrease mortality from major injuries. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and specialized equipment and supplies were brought to the area, and victims were promptly treated. Patients requiring specialized care (e.g., hemodialysis) not available in the disaster area were airlifted to tertiary hospitals in metropolitan Manila. Outside of Baguio, destruction tended to be more diffuse. Damage was caused by landslides in the mountains and settling in coastal areas. Relief efforts in these areas were prompt and successful, partly because the areas remained accessible.[15]

On July 19, 3 days after the earthquake, the priority of relief efforts shifted from treatment of injuries to public health concerns. For example, numerous broken pipes completely disrupted water systems, limiting the availability of potable water, and refugees who camped in open areas had no adequate toilet facilities. Early efforts at providing potable water by giving refugees chlorine granules were unsuccessful. Most potable water was distributed from fire engines, and DOH sanitarians chlorinated the water before it was distributed. Surveys of refugee areas showed few latrines; these had to be dug by the DOH.[16]

Title: Re: 1990 Luzon earthquake
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on July 23, 2010, 01:29:09 pm
Aftermath and reconstruction
Baguio City rebounded back as a tourist spot years after the earthquake. The land where the former Hyatt Terraces Hotel stood on South Drive, Baguio, remains undeveloped, but many other sites, such as Nevada Square, where the Nevada Hotel was destroyed, have been rebuilt.

[edit] Bibliography
"The July 16 Luzon Earthquake: A Technical Monograph". Inter-Agency Committee for Documenting and Establishing Database on the July 1990 Earthquake. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. 2001. Retrieved 2009-01-07.  
Rantucci, Giovanni (1980). Geological Disasters In The Philippines: The July 1990 Earthquake And The June 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Description, effects and lessons learned. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). ISBN 9780788120756. Retrieved 2009-08-15.  
[edit] References
^ "The July 16 Luzon Earthquake: A Technical Monograph". Inter-Agency Committee for Documenting and Establishing Database on the July 1990 Earthquake. Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. 2001. Retrieved 2009-01-07.  
^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2008: 140th Anniversary Edition. United States: World Almanac Education Group Inc.. 2008. pp. 305. ISBN 1-60057-072-0.  
^ John W. Wright, ed (2008). The New York Times 2008 Almanac. United States: Penguin Group. pp. 753. ISBN 978-0-14-311233-4.  
^ a b "Earthquake in the Philippines Kills at Least 260, Including 50 Children in One School". New York Times. 1990-07-17. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  
^ a b "Manila Assesses Damage and High Cost of Quake". New York Times. 1990-07-20. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  
^ a b c "International notes Earthquake Disaster -- Luzon, Philippines". Center for Disease Control. 1990-08-31. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  
^ Jomar Kho Indanan (1990-08-22). "The Worst of Times". National Midweek. p. 46.  
^ a b Moulic, Gobleth (2004-12-10). "How Baguio quake victim survived 15-day ordeal under rubble". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-01-13.  
^ a b "Quake Update". National Midweek. 1990-08-22. p. 39.  
^ a b "A 3rd Survivor Pulled From Collapsed Hotel". Deseret News. 1990-07-30. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  
^ Norman Bordadora & Michael Lim Ubac (2007-04-17). "Roco trapped in elevator on Friday the 13th". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-01-13.  
^ "Amid hotel ruins, survivors of 1990 Baguio earthquake remember". Malaya News. 2007-07-17.  
^ "Earthquake Wreaks Havoc in the Philippines". This Day in History. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  
^ Guingona, Teofisto (1993). The Gallant Filipino. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing Inc.. pp. 211213. ISBN 971-27-0279-0.  
^ a b Earthquake disaster - Luzon, Philippines
^ International notes Earthquake Disaster - Luzon, Philippines

[edit] External links
Baguio City Earthquake
The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake (Archived 2009-10-21)
International notes Earthquake Disaster - Luzon, Philippines
Rapid.Org.UK - Philippines earthquake
Disaster Recovery Journal - Earthquake Devastates Philippines
Steven Erlanger (1990-07-19). "Hopes Dying In the Rubble In Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-17.